## Agenda

• Review and discuss tidy data in more depth
• Practice tidying data

## Reasons to prefer tidy data

• More efficient storage and retrieval
• More scalable
• The tidyverse of tools will work much more efficiently

## Read in the hiv data

• Make some manipulations (just dplyr variety) to make the data look like the below.
• Are these data tidy?
• How would you add a new variable - say, percent aids?
• Discuss how you would transform these data, if at all.
## # A tibble: 3 x 5
##         country      x1979 x1989 x1999 x2009
##           <chr>      <dbl> <chr> <dbl> <dbl>
## 1        France         NA  <NA>   0.3   0.4
## 2  South Africa         NA  <NA>  14.8  17.2
## 3 United States 0.03176408  <NA>   0.5   0.6


## How do we tidy these data?

• Use the gather() function from tidyr
hiv_tidy <- hiv %>%
gather(year, percentage, -1)
hiv_tidy

## # A tibble: 12 x 3
##          country  year  percentage
##            <chr> <chr>       <chr>
##  1        France x1979        <NA>
##  2  South Africa x1979        <NA>
##  3 United States x1979 0.031764078
##  4        France x1989        <NA>
##  5  South Africa x1989        <NA>
##  6 United States x1989        <NA>
##  7        France x1999         0.3
##  8  South Africa x1999        14.8
##  9 United States x1999         0.5
## 10        France x2009         0.4
## 11  South Africa x2009        17.2
## 12 United States x2009         0.6


## Pop quiz

• What would have happened if I didn’t use -1 to define the columns to gather?

## Country is part of the gather

hiv %>%
gather(year, percentage)

## # A tibble: 15 x 2
##       year    percentage
##      <chr>         <chr>
##  1 country        France
##  2 country  South Africa
##  3 country United States
##  4   x1979          <NA>
##  5   x1979          <NA>
##  6   x1979   0.031764078
##  7   x1989          <NA>
##  8   x1989          <NA>
##  9   x1989          <NA>
## 10   x1999           0.3
## 11   x1999          14.8
## 12   x1999           0.5
## 13   x2009           0.4
## 14   x2009          17.2
## 15   x2009           0.6


## Declaring columns to gather

• I could have declared the columns to gather other ways. The important part is just being clear which columns should be part of the gather. All of the below are equivalent
hiv %>%
gather(year, percentage, -1)

hiv %>%
gather(year, percentage, x1979, x1989, x1999, x2009)

hiv %>%
gather(year, percentage, x1979:x2009)

hiv %>%
gather(year, percentage, -country)


## Lord of the Rings

Example from Jenny Bryan.

## Untidy tables

Fellowship

Race Female Male
Elf 1229 971
Hobbit 14 3644
Human 0 1995

Two Towers

Race Female Male
Elf 331 513
Hobbit 0 2463
Human 401 3589

Return of the King

Race Female Male
Elf 183 510
Hobbit 2 2673
Human 268 2459
• This is a great format for seeing the data
• Hard to pull information
• What’s the total number of words spoken by male hobbits?
• Does one Race dominate? Does dominant Race differ by movie?
• Could you address these same questions with 27 movies? (one table per movie)

## Tidy representation

lotr_tidy

##                          Film   Race Gender Words
## 1  The Fellowship Of The Ring    Elf Female  1229
## 2  The Fellowship Of The Ring    Elf   Male   971
## 3  The Fellowship Of The Ring Hobbit Female    14
## 4  The Fellowship Of The Ring Hobbit   Male  3644
## 5  The Fellowship Of The Ring  Human Female     0
## 6  The Fellowship Of The Ring  Human   Male  1995
## 7              The Two Towers    Elf Female   331
## 8              The Two Towers    Elf   Male   513
## 9              The Two Towers Hobbit Female     0
## 10             The Two Towers Hobbit   Male  2463
## 11             The Two Towers  Human Female   401
## 12             The Two Towers  Human   Male  3589
## 13     The Return Of The King    Elf Female   183
## 14     The Return Of The King    Elf   Male   510
## 15     The Return Of The King Hobbit Female     2
## 16     The Return Of The King Hobbit   Male  2673
## 17     The Return Of The King  Human Female   268
## 18     The Return Of The King  Human   Male  2459


Much simpler to answer the questions on the previous slide. Let’s do so. First, read in the “lotr_tidy.csv” file, then try to address the questions on the previous slide

What’s the total number of words spoken by male hobbits?

library(tidyverse)
lotr_tidy %>%
filter(Gender == "Male" & Race == "Hobbit") %>%
summarize(tot_words = sum(Words))

##   tot_words
## 1      8780


Does a certain Race Dominate a movie?

lotr_tidy %>%
group_by(Race) %>%
summarize(tot_words = sum(Words))

## # A tibble: 3 x 2
##     Race tot_words
##   <fctr>     <dbl>
## 1    Elf      3737
## 2 Hobbit      8796
## 3  Human      8712


Does the dominant Race differ by movie?

lotr_tidy %>%
group_by(Film, Race) %>%
summarize(tot_words = sum(Words))

## # A tibble: 9 x 3
## # Groups:   Film [?]
##                         Film   Race tot_words
##                       <fctr> <fctr>     <dbl>
## 1 The Fellowship Of The Ring    Elf      2200
## 2 The Fellowship Of The Ring Hobbit      3658
## 3 The Fellowship Of The Ring  Human      1995
## 4             The Two Towers    Elf       844
## 5             The Two Towers Hobbit      2463
## 6             The Two Towers  Human      3990
## 7     The Return Of The King    Elf       693
## 8     The Return Of The King Hobbit      2675
## 9     The Return Of The King  Human      2727


## Plot answers to this second set of questions

pd <- lotr_tidy %>%
group_by(Film, Race) %>%
summarize(tot_words = sum(Words))

ggplot(pd, aes(Film, tot_words, fill = Race)) +
geom_bar(stat = "identity", position = "dodge")


## Let’s go back a bit…

Import each table separately, and staple them together with bind_rows

library(rio)
fellowship <- import("../../data/fellowship.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")
ttowers <- import("../../data/two_towers.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")
rking <- import("../../data/return_king.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")

lotr <- bind_rows(fellowship, ttowers, rking)
lotr

## # A tibble: 9 x 3
##     Race Female  Male
##    <chr>  <int> <int>
## 1    Elf   1229   971
## 2 Hobbit     14  3644
## 3  Human      0  1995
## 4    Elf    331   513
## 5 Hobbit      0  2463
## 6  Human    401  3589
## 7    Elf    183   510
## 8 Hobbit      2  2673
## 9  Human    268  2459


# Are these data tidy? What do we need to do?

## gather

lotr %>%
gather(gender, word_count, -1)

## # A tibble: 18 x 3
##      Race gender word_count
##     <chr>  <chr>      <int>
##  1    Elf Female       1229
##  2 Hobbit Female         14
##  3  Human Female          0
##  4    Elf Female        331
##  5 Hobbit Female          0
##  6  Human Female        401
##  7    Elf Female        183
##  8 Hobbit Female          2
##  9  Human Female        268
## 10    Elf   Male        971
## 11 Hobbit   Male       3644
## 12  Human   Male       1995
## 13    Elf   Male        513
## 14 Hobbit   Male       2463
## 15  Human   Male       3589
## 16    Elf   Male        510
## 17 Hobbit   Male       2673
## 18  Human   Male       2459


## Challenge

• We’ve lost the film that these data come from. Try to recreate the dataset with a film variable.

fellowship <- mutate(fellowship, film = "Fellowship")
ttowers <- mutate(ttowers, film = "Two Towers")
rking <- mutate(rking, film = "Return King")

lotr <- bind_rows(fellowship, ttowers, rking)

lotr <- lotr %>%
gather(gender, word_count, Female:Male)
lotr

## # A tibble: 18 x 4
##      Race        film gender word_count
##     <chr>       <chr>  <chr>      <int>
##  1    Elf  Fellowship Female       1229
##  2 Hobbit  Fellowship Female         14
##  3  Human  Fellowship Female          0
##  4    Elf  Two Towers Female        331
##  5 Hobbit  Two Towers Female          0
##  6  Human  Two Towers Female        401
##  7    Elf Return King Female        183
##  8 Hobbit Return King Female          2
##  9  Human Return King Female        268
## 10    Elf  Fellowship   Male        971
## 11 Hobbit  Fellowship   Male       3644
## 12  Human  Fellowship   Male       1995
## 13    Elf  Two Towers   Male        513
## 14 Hobbit  Two Towers   Male       2463
## 15  Human  Two Towers   Male       3589
## 16    Elf Return King   Male        510
## 17 Hobbit Return King   Male       2673
## 18  Human Return King   Male       2459


## Alternative method

• The bind_rows function includes an optional .id argument. Try it!
fellowship <- import("../../data/fellowship.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")
ttowers <- import("../../data/two_towers.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")
rking <- import("../../data/return_king.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")

lotr2 <- bind_rows(fellowship, ttowers, rking, .id = "dataset")
lotr2

## # A tibble: 9 x 4
##   dataset   Race Female  Male
##     <chr>  <chr>  <int> <int>
## 1       1    Elf   1229   971
## 2       1 Hobbit     14  3644
## 3       1  Human      0  1995
## 4       2    Elf    331   513
## 5       2 Hobbit      0  2463
## 6       2  Human    401  3589
## 7       3    Elf    183   510
## 8       3 Hobbit      2  2673
## 9       3  Human    268  2459


## Recode dataset to correspond

lotr2 %>%
mutate(dataset = ifelse(dataset == 1, "fellowship",
ifelse(dataset == 2, "two towers",
"return of the king")))

## # A tibble: 9 x 4
##              dataset   Race Female  Male
##                <chr>  <chr>  <int> <int>
## 1         fellowship    Elf   1229   971
## 2         fellowship Hobbit     14  3644
## 3         fellowship  Human      0  1995
## 4         two towers    Elf    331   513
## 5         two towers Hobbit      0  2463
## 6         two towers  Human    401  3589
## 7 return of the king    Elf    183   510
## 8 return of the king Hobbit      2  2673
## 9 return of the king  Human    268  2459


## dplyr version

• I personally prefer base::ifelse to dplyr::recode, but I’d be remiss if I didn’t at least mention it
lotr2 %>%
mutate(dataset = recode(dataset,
"1" = "fellowship",
"2" = "two towers",
"3" = "return of the king"))

## # A tibble: 9 x 4
##              dataset   Race Female  Male
##                <chr>  <chr>  <int> <int>
## 1         fellowship    Elf   1229   971
## 2         fellowship Hobbit     14  3644
## 3         fellowship  Human      0  1995
## 4         two towers    Elf    331   513
## 5         two towers Hobbit      0  2463
## 6         two towers  Human    401  3589
## 7 return of the king    Elf    183   510
## 8 return of the king Hobbit      2  2673
## 9 return of the king  Human    268  2459


## Need a new format?

Imagine we needed a variable for each gender/Race combination (maybe for a table in a paper). We can produce this by unite()ing the two variables together and then spreading based on that variable.

lotr %>%
unite(race_gen, Race, gender) %>%

## # A tibble: 3 x 7
##          film Elf_Female Elf_Male Hobbit_Female Hobbit_Male Human_Female
## *       <chr>      <int>    <int>         <int>       <int>        <int>
## 1  Fellowship       1229      971            14        3644            0
## 2 Return King        183      510             2        2673          268
## 3  Two Towers        331      513             0        2463          401
## # ... with 1 more variables: Human_Male <int>


## A few more examples (follow along)

votes <- import("../../data/votes.repub.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")

## # A tibble: 50 x 32
##             V1 X1856 X1860 X1864 X1868 X1872 X1876 X1880 X1884 X1888 X1892
##          <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
##  1     Alabama    NA    NA    NA 51.44 53.19 40.02 36.98 38.44 32.28  3.95
##  2      Alaska    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA
##  3     Arizona    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA
##  4    Arkansas    NA    NA    NA 53.73 52.17 39.88 39.55 40.50 38.07 32.01
##  5  California 18.77 32.96 58.63 50.24 56.38 50.88 48.92 52.08 49.95 43.76
##  6    Colorado    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA    NA 51.28 54.39 55.31 41.13
##  7 Connecticut 53.18 53.86 51.38 51.54 52.25 48.34 50.52 48.01 48.44 46.80
##  8    Delaware  2.11 23.71 48.20 40.98 50.99 44.55 47.86 42.75 43.55 48.55
##  9     Florida    NA    NA    NA    NA 53.52 50.99 45.83 46.82 39.94    NA
## 10     Georgia    NA    NA    NA 35.72 43.77 27.94 34.33 33.84 28.33 21.80
## # ... with 40 more rows, and 21 more variables: X1896 <dbl>, X1900 <dbl>,
## #   X1904 <dbl>, X1908 <dbl>, X1912 <dbl>, X1916 <dbl>, X1920 <dbl>,
## #   X1924 <dbl>, X1928 <dbl>, X1932 <dbl>, X1936 <dbl>, X1940 <dbl>,
## #   X1944 <dbl>, X1948 <dbl>, X1952 <dbl>, X1956 <dbl>, X1960 <dbl>,
## #   X1964 <dbl>, X1968 <dbl>, X1972 <dbl>, X1976 <dbl>


## Discuss with neighbor

• What’s the first step to tidy these data?
• Second?

## Step 1: Name state

• dplyr syntax
votes <- votes %>%
rename(state = V1)

• I actually prefer base syntax for renaming, but it may be slightly less clear
names(votes)[1] <- "state"


## Step 2: gather()

votes %>%
gather(year, approval_rating, -1)

## # A tibble: 1,550 x 3
##          state  year approval_rating
##          <chr> <chr>           <dbl>
##  1     Alabama X1856              NA
##  3     Arizona X1856              NA
##  4    Arkansas X1856              NA
##  5  California X1856           18.77
##  7 Connecticut X1856           53.18
##  8    Delaware X1856            2.11
##  9     Florida X1856              NA
## 10     Georgia X1856              NA
## # ... with 1,540 more rows


## Clean up some

votes_tidy <- votes %>%
gather(year, approval_rating, -1) %>%
mutate(year = parse_number(year))

## # A tibble: 1,550 x 3
##          state  year approval_rating
##          <chr> <dbl>           <dbl>
##  1     Alabama  1856              NA
##  3     Arizona  1856              NA
##  4    Arkansas  1856              NA
##  5  California  1856           18.77
##  7 Connecticut  1856           53.18
##  8    Delaware  1856            2.11
##  9     Florida  1856              NA
## 10     Georgia  1856              NA
## # ... with 1,540 more rows


## Exploratory plot

• Can you plot approval ratings by year for the west coast (California, Oregon, and Washington)?
• What do you observe?

## Plot

pd <- votes_tidy %>%
filter(state == "California" |
state == "Oregon" |
state == "Washington")

theme_set(theme_light())
ggplot(pd, aes(year, approval_rating, color = state)) +
geom_line()


## More complex

• Discuss with a partner/your table
• What are the variables?
• What needs to happen to make it tidy?
affairs <- import("../../data/affairs.csv", setclass = "tbl_df")
affairs

## # A tibble: 601 x 19
##       V1 naffairs  kids vryunhap unhap avgmarr hapavg vryhap antirel
##    <chr>    <int> <int>    <int> <int>   <int>  <int>  <int>   <int>
##  1     1        0     0        0     0       0      1      0       0
##  2     2        0     0        0     0       0      1      0       0
##  3     3        3     0        0     0       0      1      0       0
##  4     4        0     1        0     0       0      1      0       1
##  5     5        3     1        0     0       0      0      1       0
##  6     6        0     1        0     0       0      0      1       0
##  7     7        0     0        0     0       1      0      0       0
##  8     8        0     0        0     0       0      0      1       0
##  9     9        7     1        0     1       0      0      0       0
## 10    10        0     0        0     0       1      0      0       0
## # ... with 591 more rows, and 10 more variables: notrel <int>,
## #   slghtrel <int>, smerel <int>, vryrel <int>, yrsmarr1 <int>,
## #   yrsmarr2 <int>, yrsmarr3 <int>, yrsmarr4 <int>, yrsmarr5 <int>,
## #   yrsmarr6 <int>


## Variables

• Number of affairs: naffairs
• Have kids or not: kids
• Marriage happiness: vryunhap:vryhap
• Religous: antirel:vryrel
• Years married: yrsmarr1:yrsmarr6

## Lots of ways to do this

• One way: rename, gather, separate, filter, spread For renaming I’m using base again and you can probably see more clearly why I prefer it
names(affairs)[1] <- "id"
names(affairs)[4:8] <- paste0("marhap_", names(affairs)[4:8])
names(affairs)[9:13] <- paste0("rel_", names(affairs)[9:13])
names(affairs)[14:19] <- paste0("yrs_", names(affairs)[14:19])
affairs

## # A tibble: 601 x 19
##       id naffairs  kids marhap_vryunhap marhap_unhap marhap_avgmarr
##    <chr>    <int> <int>           <int>        <int>          <int>
##  1     1        0     0               0            0              0
##  2     2        0     0               0            0              0
##  3     3        3     0               0            0              0
##  4     4        0     1               0            0              0
##  5     5        3     1               0            0              0
##  6     6        0     1               0            0              0
##  7     7        0     0               0            0              1
##  8     8        0     0               0            0              0
##  9     9        7     1               0            1              0
## 10    10        0     0               0            0              1
## # ... with 591 more rows, and 13 more variables: marhap_hapavg <int>,
## #   marhap_vryhap <int>, rel_antirel <int>, rel_notrel <int>,
## #   rel_slghtrel <int>, rel_smerel <int>, rel_vryrel <int>,
## #   yrs_yrsmarr1 <int>, yrs_yrsmarr2 <int>, yrs_yrsmarr3 <int>,
## #   yrs_yrsmarr4 <int>, yrs_yrsmarr5 <int>, yrs_yrsmarr6 <int>


## gather

affairs %>%
gather(var, val, -id, -naffairs, -kids)

## # A tibble: 9,616 x 5
##       id naffairs  kids             var   val
##    <chr>    <int> <int>           <chr> <int>
##  1     1        0     0 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  2     2        0     0 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  3     3        3     0 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  4     4        0     1 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  5     5        3     1 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  6     6        0     1 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  7     7        0     0 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  8     8        0     0 marhap_vryunhap     0
##  9     9        7     1 marhap_vryunhap     0
## 10    10        0     0 marhap_vryunhap     0
## # ... with 9,606 more rows


## separate

affairs %>%
gather(var, val, -id, -naffairs, -kids) %>%
separate(var, c("var", "char_val"))

## # A tibble: 9,616 x 6
##       id naffairs  kids    var char_val   val
##  * <chr>    <int> <int>  <chr>    <chr> <int>
##  1     1        0     0 marhap vryunhap     0
##  2     2        0     0 marhap vryunhap     0
##  3     3        3     0 marhap vryunhap     0
##  4     4        0     1 marhap vryunhap     0
##  5     5        3     1 marhap vryunhap     0
##  6     6        0     1 marhap vryunhap     0
##  7     7        0     0 marhap vryunhap     0
##  8     8        0     0 marhap vryunhap     0
##  9     9        7     1 marhap vryunhap     0
## 10    10        0     0 marhap vryunhap     0
## # ... with 9,606 more rows


## Filter

affairs %>%
gather(var, val, -id, -naffairs, -kids) %>%
separate(var, c("var", "char_val")) %>%
filter(val == 1)

## # A tibble: 1,803 x 6
##       id naffairs  kids    var char_val   val
##    <chr>    <int> <int>  <chr>    <chr> <int>
##  1    49       12     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  2    64        0     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  3    82        0     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  4   138        0     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  5   150       12     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  6   206        7     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  7   215        0     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  8   275        3     1 marhap vryunhap     1
##  9   358        0     1 marhap vryunhap     1
## 10   371        0     1 marhap vryunhap     1
## # ... with 1,793 more rows


## Drop val and spread

affairs %>%
gather(var, val, -id, -naffairs, -kids) %>%
separate(var, c("var", "char_val")) %>%
filter(val == 1) %>%
select(-val) %>%

## # A tibble: 601 x 6
##       id naffairs  kids  marhap      rel      yrs
##  * <chr>    <int> <int>   <chr>    <chr>    <chr>
##  1     1        0     0  hapavg slghtrel yrsmarr5
##  2    10        0     0 avgmarr   notrel yrsmarr1
##  3   100        0     1  hapavg   smerel yrsmarr5
##  4   101        0     1  vryhap slghtrel yrsmarr6
##  5   102        0     0  vryhap   vryrel yrsmarr2
##  6   103        0     0  hapavg   notrel yrsmarr2
##  7   104        7     1  hapavg   notrel yrsmarr4
##  8   105        7     1  hapavg   notrel yrsmarr6
##  9   106        0     0  vryhap slghtrel yrsmarr3
## 10   107        0     1  vryhap   vryrel yrsmarr5
## # ... with 591 more rows


## Cleanup

affairs_tidy <- affairs %>%
gather(var, val, -id, -naffairs, -kids) %>%
separate(var, c("var", "char_val")) %>%
filter(val == 1) %>%
select(-val) %>%
mutate(yrs = parse_number(yrs))

affairs_tidy

## # A tibble: 601 x 6
##       id naffairs  kids  marhap      rel   yrs
##    <chr>    <int> <int>   <chr>    <chr> <dbl>
##  1     1        0     0  hapavg slghtrel     5
##  2    10        0     0 avgmarr   notrel     1
##  3   100        0     1  hapavg   smerel     5
##  4   101        0     1  vryhap slghtrel     6
##  5   102        0     0  vryhap   vryrel     2
##  6   103        0     0  hapavg   notrel     2
##  7   104        7     1  hapavg   notrel     4
##  8   105        7     1  hapavg   notrel     6
##  9   106        0     0  vryhap slghtrel     3
## 10   107        0     1  vryhap   vryrel     5
## # ... with 591 more rows


## Notice what we’ve done?

• Essentially, in this case, we’ve removed the dummy-coding
• One of the most common ways data are not tidy

## Produce a plot

• Can you produce a plot showing the relation of yrs of marriage with the number of affairs by marriage happiness?

## plot

• Lots of different ways to do this, of course.
ggplot(affairs_tidy, aes(yrs, naffairs, color = marhap)) +
geom_jitter(width = 0.2, height = 0) +
geom_smooth(method = "lm", se = FALSE)


## Alternative plot

ggplot(affairs_tidy, aes(yrs, naffairs)) +
geom_violin() +
geom_jitter(width = 0.2, height = 0) +
facet_wrap(~marhap)


## Yet another example

ggplot(affairs_tidy, aes(yrs, naffairs)) +
geom_violin(aes(group = yrs), color = "gray80", size = 2) +
geom_jitter(width = 0.2, height = 0, color = "cornflowerblue", alpha = 0.4) +
geom_smooth(method = "lm", se = FALSE, aes(color = marhap)) +
scale_color_brewer(palette = "Set1")


## Challenge: Creating dummies

Try turning religion back to a dummy variable, like below

• Hint 1: You’ll have to create a new variable.
• Hint 2: Think about additional arguments you could pass to the functions you’re using. Look at the documentation.
## # A tibble: 601 x 10
##       id naffairs  kids  marhap   yrs antirel notrel slghtrel smerel
##  * <chr>    <int> <int>   <chr> <dbl>   <dbl>  <dbl>    <dbl>  <dbl>
##  1     1        0     0  hapavg     5       0      0        1      0
##  2    10        0     0 avgmarr     1       0      1        0      0
##  3   100        0     1  hapavg     5       0      0        0      1
##  4   101        0     1  vryhap     6       0      0        1      0
##  5   102        0     0  vryhap     2       0      0        0      0
##  6   103        0     0  hapavg     2       0      1        0      0
##  7   104        7     1  hapavg     4       0      1        0      0
##  8   105        7     1  hapavg     6       0      1        0      0
##  9   106        0     0  vryhap     3       0      0        1      0
## 10   107        0     1  vryhap     5       0      0        0      0
## # ... with 591 more rows, and 1 more variables: vryrel <dbl>


affairs_tidy %>%
mutate(const = 1) %>%

## # A tibble: 601 x 10
##       id naffairs  kids  marhap   yrs antirel notrel slghtrel smerel
##  * <chr>    <int> <int>   <chr> <dbl>   <dbl>  <dbl>    <dbl>  <dbl>
##  1     1        0     0  hapavg     5       0      0        1      0
##  2    10        0     0 avgmarr     1       0      1        0      0
##  3   100        0     1  hapavg     5       0      0        0      1
##  4   101        0     1  vryhap     6       0      0        1      0
##  5   102        0     0  vryhap     2       0      0        0      0
##  6   103        0     0  hapavg     2       0      1        0      0
##  7   104        7     1  hapavg     4       0      1        0      0
##  8   105        7     1  hapavg     6       0      1        0      0
##  9   106        0     0  vryhap     3       0      0        1      0
## 10   107        0     1  vryhap     5       0      0        0      0
## # ... with 591 more rows, and 1 more variables: vryrel <dbl>